How unaccompanied youth become exploited workers in the U.S.

The Trump administration has released a series of executive orders targeting immigration at the U.S. southern border. Central American families and children traveling alone represent nearly half of all unauthorized migrants apprehended by Customs and Border Protection. The criminalization of immigrants at the U.S. southern border disproportionately affects Central American children and youth.

Nearly 153,000 unaccompanied Mexican and Central American childrenhave been apprehended at the U.S. southern border since 2014. Of those detained by Customs and Border Protection and processed by the Office of Refugee Resettlement, 60 percent have been reunited with a sponsor, typically a parent. The other 40 percent are placed with a nonparent sponsor.

With the guidance of a parent or guardian, these youths might obtain financial, legal, health and social support. Others who enter without detection and remain unaccompanied when they arrive in the U.S. are financially independent and may never gain access to formal resettlement services. Recent orders by the Trump administration that prioritize unaccompanied child migrants for deportation heighten the vulnerability of immigrant children in the U.S.

Since 2012, I have conducted in-depth observations and interviews with undocumented immigrant youth who arrived in Los Angeles, California as unaccompanied minors and have remained without a parent throughout their settlement in the U.S. I use pseudonyms for confidentiality as research participants are migrant youth living and working in the U.S. without authorization.

Pundits and scholars tend to frame immigrant youth as students and adult migrants as workers. However, being unaccompanied at settlement requires youth to become financially independent and take up low-wage occupations to make ends meet.

My ongoing research shows that unaccompanied migrant youth face labor exploitation and suggests that Trump’s orders exacerbate the precarious work conditions of unaccompanied immigrant youth workers in the U.S.

Read the full story here.

Gaspar Marcos and unaccompanied migrant youth workers

On July 10th, the LA Times story of Gaspar Marcos took the interweb by storm. His experiences with juggling 19-hour school and work days provided a glimpse into the questions we’ve had since the “humanitarian crisis” of summer of 2014: “Where do unaccompanied youth go upon arrival in the U.S.? How are they settling in cities like Los Angeles (and beyond)?” These questions are especially pressing when talking about unaccompanied minors who remain unaccompanied at settlement and have to find ways to make ends meet.

When I read the LA Times piece and watched the video, I was heartbroken all over again. I say ‘all over again’ because I’ve been hearing these stories since 2011 when I began my doctoral research with unaccompanied Central American youth in Los Angeles County for my masters thesis (happy to email you a copy if you’re interested). Until now, most of my published work has centered on the experiences of garment working youth. Gaspar’s experiences that many have now come to know resonate strongly.

When I first began my research I’d never heard stories like the ones young people shared with me. How could these sorts of things happen in Los Angeles, a city known for its affluence? How could these sorts of things happen to children? And all the while we condemned these same practices and outcomes in other nations. I’d leave my field site with headaches. After interviews, I’d have to pull over to the side of the road to vomit (TMI? probably). It would take me days, sometimes weeks to complete a set of field notes because I just didn’t know what to do with this reality.

I also couldn’t believe I was driving away with ‘data’ that strengthened my research, while leaving someone in the same position they were in when I met them. Young people often thank me for letting them “desahogar (vent),” but that could never be enough. I didn’t know what to do about the violence, the suffering, the emotional turmoil, the poverty, the sexual abuse, the drugs and alcohol, the loneliness. I also know too much about the hope, the strength, the courage, the resilience, and what I saw so many people refer to as “grit” when they saw Gaspar’s story over the past few days to stay quiet.

Here’s why: Gaspar represents one of thousands of kids who have lived and continue to live this reality. The handfuls of interview I’ve collected are still only a drop in the bucket. Too many (uncounted) immigrant youth are coming to the U.S. knowing parents and/or guardians do not await them in the U.S. but that finding employment, however precarious, could make their family’s lives better. And, better can mean anything from increasing access to food and medicine to buying a house and starting a business.

At what cost? The clothes that you bought at Forever 21 or H&M were likely sewn by an unaccompanied child migrant. The dishes you eat your food off of at LA Live might be washed by an unaccompanied child migrant. The car you’re getting detailed for twenty dollars in East Los Angeles could be hand-dried by an unaccompanied child migrant. The flowers you buy at LA Flower Mart were probably trimmed and arranged by an unaccompanied child migrant. Exploitation, violence, and poverty are rampant in the low-wage, dead end jobs these youth take. The conditions are not out of our control. Our daily lives are far more intertwined than we think.

Sadly, we tend to brush it off thinking that someone else will step in, that someone else will help unaccompanied youth (just as we tend to think someone else will start a movement, preserve water, rescue animals, stop pollution, etc.). Yet my research with church organizations in Los Angeles shows that even the most well-intended and presumably supportive organizations sometimes falter in their ability to support vulnerable populations, like unaccompanied youth, because of their lack of resources. This article is forthcoming and will be posted to my website when published.

We have to get active. We have to do more than share stories on Facebook or Twitter. A GoFundMe was set up for Gaspar, and I encourage you to support him. I also encourage you to consider ways to support other unaccompanied minor migrant workers. Here are some ideas:

  • Get involved in immigrant serving organizations via your time, your resources, your skills, your networks and contacts. Los Angeles and plenty of other counties are struggling to carry their case loads of unaccompanied child migrants who qualify for visas, Special Immigrant Juvenile Status, etc. Too many kids are facing judges, awaiting to hear the final verdict on their deportation order, alone. People are working to provide food and shelter to young people. You can make a lasting impact by getting involved in legalization and care taking efforts. Feel free to email me if you would like suggestions on unaccompanied child migrant serving orgs in your area.
  • Donate books, supplies, clothing and shoes (including athletic gear), hygienic products to schools and community organizations.  Many kids might stop going to school because they don’t have access to a backpack, notebooks, shoes. Plenty of youth have told me that they have made their best friends on soccer fields and they feel most comfortable practicing their english with teammates whom they develop trusting relationships with. Belmont High School was profiled in Gaspar’s case. Find a high school, middle school, and elementary school near you and contact their principals. I can also suggest organizations.
  • Encourage your family, friends, and colleagues to read the same stories that have changed the way you think about immigration, immigration reform, unaccompanied minor migrants, and the countries they are coming from. You are their greatest advocate.
  • VOTE! These stories matter from the local to the federal level. Now more than ever we need to make our voices heard. Demand the representation of your views and your community. Demand the implementation of policies that reflect your heart for humanity. Be a voice for the voiceless.
  • Finally, be kind. Leave people better than you found them. It baffles me that taking an interest in the unaccompanied youth I’ve met, following up with them beyond the interview, can impact them. So simple. We can never know what the person sitting next to us on the bus, stumbling for change at the grocery story, or asking for help on the side of the road is going through. We can never know the burdens people bear. It is our responsibility to hold others lightly, to treat them with compassion and love and respect even before we are prompted by a heartbreaking story. To free others of their suffering is to free ourselves.

Please  reach out with questions regarding my research, with suggestions on some next steps, including organizations you work with that I can add to my referral list, and with any ideas this sparks. Amor por la gente, pasion por la vida.

The Untold History of Unaccompanied Minors

“Public opinion remains deeply divided over whether the U.S. government has a moral obligation to offer asylum to Central Americans children escaping political persecution or violence in their home countries. According to a survey published last month by the Associated Press, 53 percent of the U.S. public think their country has no obligation to take in the latest wave of “tired and huddled masses” fleeing troubles in their home countries.

We talked to 11 scholars and activists who think the United States, a self-professed nation of immigrants, does have a moral obligation to provide asylum to Central American minors, many of whom — experts argue — are fleeing violence that resulted from U.S. foreign policy.

Fusion presents the untold history behind the unaccompanied minors, a collection of 60-second videos.

Life for child migrants is even harder beyond the US border

The following comes from an article I wrote for The Conversation:

Between 2003 and 2011, 8,000 to 40,000 unaccompanied migrant children from Central America were stopped every year on the southern border of the US. When this number boomed to more than 57,000 during the first nine months of 2014, president Barack Obama announced an “urgent humanitarian situation requiring a unified and coordinated Federal response” at the border.

In early July, Obama asked Congress for $3.7bn in emergency spending to increase man power and surveillance at the border, and expand facilities and legal services for detained children. Later in July, Obama met with the presidents of Guatemala, Honduras, and El Salvador, from which many of these children come.

There have been many debates about the causes of this surge of child migrants, as well as the best strategies for addressing the trend along the border and abroad. But there has been little if any discussion about what happens to child migrants who successfully enter undetected. We can only speculate on the consequences of the US’s failure to address the crisis.

Since the summer of 2012, I have conducted observations and interviews with Guatemalan Maya young adults between the ages of 18 and 35 who arrived as unaccompanied minors between four and 19 years ago. My research shows that violence and poverty are not things of the past for unaccompanied Central American children who come of age in the shadows.

CLICK HERE FOR FULL ARTICLE

The risk of unaccompanied migrant youth

In “At the Crossroads: Youth at the Intersection of the Family and the State”, Lauren Heidbrink writes:

“In addition to being subjected to the vicissitudes of the war on terrorism and the war on immigrants, unaccompanied children also exist as a particular kind of palpable threat to the body politic. The view that children are somehow in the process of becoming and of being not-yet-socialized translates into the contested potentiality of migrant youth. On the one hand, the potential for socialization and rehabilitation offers some assurances to the state which seeks their allegiance; on the other, the malleability of impressionable youth elevates them open to forming suspicious or even danger allegiances with other states, criminals or terrorists. The diffuseness of terrorism leaves those allegiances simultaneously undetermined, yet in many respects, inconsequential. It is the fear of the relation of these youths’ potential influenced by violent terrorist organizations, that warrants additional attention and containment. Images of child soldiers from conflicts around the world and headlines about children as young as 14 training to be suicide bombers in Gaza, Pakistan, Iraq and Afghanistan offer the public further proof to the capacity of children to commit terrorism. Unaccompanied migrant youth become yet another group of unencumbered, untrustworthy, born men requiring law-enforcement intervention to control the threat to he nation (see Bernstein and Lichtblau, 2005). While seemingly irreconcilable with the image of the hardened criminal incapable of rehabilitation, the still-malleable youth as a potential home-grown terrorist stems from social anxieties of violence and xenophobia. The out-of-place migrant youth transforms from at risk to the risk” (176).

As debates swirl around how to address the humanitarian crisis along the US/Mexico border, a new threat narrative forms and children are made “impossible subjects”.

Experiences of Exploitation, Poverty, and Marginality among Unaccompanied Migrant Youth

I am approaching my two year anniversary of beginning my research with Central American youth and young-adults who arrived as unaccompanied minors. Each day they thank me for my time and attention and have given me nicknames like “teacher”, “hermana”, and “Chep” (Maya K’iche for Stephanie). They smile shyly when I tell them that they are my teachers and I would not have made it this far in grad school if it were not for them. Not only because, well… they are my research participants, but because they teach me about perseverance, hope, dreaming big dreams, and finding happiness in moments of sinceridad (sincerity).

Below is the product of my time as a UC Davis Center for Poverty Research visiting scholar. A small glimpse into the lives of those unaccompanied minors who make it beyond the border and begin living and working in Los Angeles. Please share this and join me in making this experience known.

http://poverty.ucdavis.edu/policy-brief/exploitation-poverty-and-marginality-among-unaccompanied-migrant-youth

Press Conference and Rally

Human Rights Alliance for Child Refugees and Families

From Facebook Event (link below):

Central Americans and Allies call on President Obama to Rescind his call to Fastrack-Deportation of Minors and to Divert $2 billion away from Militarizing the Border

In response to the current humanitarian crisis evidenced by the unprecedented number of Central American child migrants seeking refuge in the United States,Southern California based organizations will protest President Obama’s harmful policies towards refugee children on Monday, July 7 at 12:30pm at the Downtown Los Angeles Federal Building.

As U.S. citizens, residents, concerned civilians, organizations, community, legal experts, and families of the detained and deported, we have a moral and legal responsibility to demand that the United States government halt traumatizing and further damaging the already scarred lives of these child migrants. We demand that the children be reunited with their families, that deportations stop, and that we take humanitarian –rather than ruthless– steps towards solving this humanitarian crisis.

WHO: Human Rights Alliance for Child Refugees and Families includes local organizations, families, and legal experts concerned with the treatment and rights of Central American child migrants

WHERE: Downtown LA Federal Building
300 North Los Angeles Street Los Angeles, CA 90012

WHAT: PROTEST/RALLY/PRESS CONFERENCE IN SUPPORT OF CHILD REFUGEES

WHEN: Monday, July 7, 2014. 12:00 PM

 

 

For more info: https://www.facebook.com/events/1449866621947764/

TPS holders deemed inspected and admitted

Excerpt, page 6:

“However, the Ninth Circuit’s holding that enrollment in the Family Unity Program (FUP) constituted an “admission” within the meaning of the INA can be applied to the present case. See Garcia-Quintero v. Gonzalez, 455 F.3d 1006 (9th Cir. 2006). In that case, the court reasoned that although the plaintiff’s “enrollment into the FUP did not literally comport with the INA’s definition of ‘admitted,’ both this court and the BIA, in precedential decisions, have not limited the scope of ‘admitted’ to this strict definition.” Id. at 1015. Plaintiffs correctly argue that this reasoning applies to the current case because a TPS beneficiary similarly undergoes a process that specifically requires inadmissibility to be waived and is expressly accorded lawful status during the time that TPS status is in effect.”

 

http://legalactioncenter.org/sites/default/files/35_Order%20granting%20Pl%20summary%20jdmt.pdf

USC Tomas Rivera Policy Institute: The Latino Middle Class

Earlier this year, Dr. Jody Agius Vallejo and I were asked to develop a microsite (read: resource page) for USC’s Tomas Rivera Policy Institute. Building on Jody Vallejo’s work centered on the Mexican-American middle class, the research highlighted on this site examines middle-class Mexican Americans and elite Latino entrepreneurs. We address important questions concerning immigrant socioeconomic mobility and assimilation.

Immigrants and their children are the future of American society and this research helps to contradict the one-dimensional and damaging images of poor, unauthorized, and unassimilable Latinos that are reinforced by media, pundits, and politicians.

For more on the Tomas Rivera Policy Institute, click here.